Some developments in the integrated transmiters

Aug 12, 2021

Compared with the Mach-Zehnder expander, the micro-ring expander (micro-ring modulator, hereinafter referred to as MRM) is smaller and lower in size, but its disadvantages are also obvious:

1) Fine optics, only a fraction of a fraction

2) Sensitive to process and temperature

3) EO conversion

The deformation and thermal adjustment of Intel EO conversion are designed to compensate and control these problems. The entire system is shown in the figure. The size of the EIC is 1.5mmX1.5mm.
PIC chips mainly include:

1) III-V hybrid integrated laser with a wavelength of 1310nm;

2) Microcirculator, using thermal effect to adjust the wavelength;

3) Monitor PD.

EIC chips mainly include:

1) MRM drive;

2) Thermal control loop (thermal control loop);

3) On-chip code response.
The PIC chip also plays the role of Interposer, mainly the signal transmission between the EIC and the PCB board. The electrical signal between EIC and PIC is transmitted through Cu pillar.
The transfer function of the microcirculation generator depends on the wavelength, the relationship between the optical power and the deformation of the bias voltage. In addition, under the possible bias voltage, the optics will increase somewhat, and the optics and bias will also be deformed. Relationship.
The NL-PD (non-linear predistortion) path mainly amplifies the electrical signals of different sizes to different degrees and solves the problem of non-linear coloring. NL-FFE (non-linear feedforward equalizer) mainly solves the problem of dynamic non-linearity, applying different FFE to different electrical signals to cause differences. Due to the difficulty of high-speed multiplexer communication, Intel uses a digital circuit plus DAC to adjust the degree of drive signal by looking up a lookup table.
For the heater control circuit, Intel adopts a closed-loop control (closed-loop control) method. Two MPDs are set at the input and output of the micro-loop arithmetic unit. The MPD is connected to the TIA, and the output signal of the TIA is processed by the comparator instead of ADC. The signal passes through a filter integrator to obtain a 12-bit digital signal. Then the PDAC converts the 12-bit digital signal into a 4-bit analog signal, adjusts the current at the heater, and finds the OMA map.
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